无坑部署最小化K8S集群


虽然网上有大量从零搭建 K8S 的文章,但大都针对老版本,若直接照搬去安装最新的 1.20 版本会遇到一堆问题。故此将我的安装步骤记录下来,希望能为读者提供 copy and paste 式的集群搭建帮助。

部署最小化K8S集群


1. 部署准备工作

部署最小化 K8S 集群:master + node1 + node2

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➜ vgs
Current machine states:
master                    running (virtualbox)
node1                     running (virtualbox)
node2                     running (virtualbox)

1.1 基础环境信息

  • 设置系统主机名以及 Host 文件各节点之间的相互解析
    • 使用这个的 Vagrantfile 启动的三节点服务已经配置好了
    • 以下使用 master 节点进行演示查看,其他节点操作均一致
# hostnamectl
[email protected]:~$ hostnamectl
   Static hostname: k8s-master

# hosts
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1        localhost
127.0.1.1        vagrant.vm    vagrant
192.168.30.30    k8s-master
192.168.30.31    k8s-node1
192.168.30.32    k8s-node2

# ping
[email protected]:~$ ping k8s-node1
PING k8s-node1 (192.168.30.31) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from k8s-node1 (192.168.30.31): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.689 ms

1.2 阿里源配置

# 登录服务器
➜ vgssh master/node1/nod2
Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.15.0-50-generic x86_64)

# 设置阿里云Ubuntu镜像
$ sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list{,.bak}
$ sudo vim /etc/apt/sources.list

# 配置kubeadm的阿里云镜像源
$ sudo vim /etc/apt/sources.list
deb https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/apt kubernetes-xenial main
$ sudo gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys BA07F4FB
$ sudo gpg --export --armor BA07F4FB | sudo apt-key add -

# 配置docker安装
$ curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo apt-key add -
$ sudo apt-key fingerprint 0EBFCD88
$ sudo vim /etc/apt/sources.list
deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu bionic stable

# 更新仓库
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt dist-upgrade

1.3 基础工具安装

  • 部署阶段的基础工具安装
    • 基础组件 docker
    • 部署工具 kubeadm
    • 路由规则 ipvsadm
    • 时间同步 ntp
# 基础工具安装
$ sudo apt install -y \
    docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io \
    kubeadm ipvsadm \
    ntp ntpdate \
    nginx supervisor

# 将当前普通用户加入docker组(需重新登录)
$ sudo usermod -a -G docker $USER

# 服务启用
$ sudo systemctl enable docker.service
$ sudo systemctl start docker.service
$ sudo systemctl enable kubelet.service
$ sudo systemctl start kubelet.service

1.4 操作系统配置

  • 操作系统相关配置
    • 关闭缓存
    • 配置内核参数
    • 调整系统时区
    • 升级内核版本(默认为4.15.0的版本)
# 关闭缓存
$ sudo swapoff -a

# 为K8S来调整内核参数
$ sudo touch /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf
$ sudo cat > /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf <<EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1 # 开启网桥模式(必须)
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1 # 开启网桥模式(必须)
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1 # 关闭IPv6协议(必须)
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1 # 转发模式(默认开启)
vm.panic_on_oom=0 # 开启OOM(默认开启)
vm.swappiness = 0 # 禁止使用swap空间
vm.overcommit_memory=1 # 不检查物理内存是否够用
fs.inotify.max_user_instances=8192
fs.inotify.max_user_watches=1048576
fs.file-max = 52706963 # 设置文件句柄数量
fs.nr_open = 52706963 # 设置文件的最大打开数量
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 2310720
EOF

# 查看系统内核参数的方式
$ sudo sysctl -a | grep xxx
# 使内核参数配置文件生效
$ sudo sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf
# 设置系统时区为中国/上海
$ sudo timedatectl set-timezone Asia/Shanghai

# 将当前的UTC时间写入硬件时钟
$ sudo timedatectl set-local-rtc 0

1.5 开启 ipvs 服务

  • 开启 ipvs 服务
    • kube-proxy 开启 ipvs 的前置条件
# 载入指定的个别模块
$ modprobe br_netfilter

# 修改配置
$ cat > /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules <<EOF
#!/bin/bash
modprobe -- ip_vs
modprobe -- ip_vs_rr
modprobe -- ip_vs_wrr
modprobe -- ip_vs_sh
modprobe -- nf_conntrack_ipv
EOF

# 加载配置
$ chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules \
    && bash /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules \
    && lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack_ipv

2. 部署 Master 节点

节点最低配置: 2C+2G 内存;从节点资源尽量充足

kubeadm 工具的 init 命令,即可初始化以单节点部署的 master。为了避免翻墙,这里可以使用阿里云的谷歌源来代替。在执行 kubeadm 部署命令的时候,指定对应地址即可。当然,可以将其加入本地的镜像库之中,更易维护。

# 登录服务器
➜ vgssh master
Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.15.0-50-generic x86_64)

# 部署节点(命令行)
# 注意pod和service的地址需要不同(否则会报错)
$ sudo kubeadm init \
    --kubernetes-version=1.20.2 \
    --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers \
    --apiserver-advertise-address=192.168.30.30 \
    --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \
    --service-cidr=10.245.0.0/16

# 部署镜像配置(配置文件)
$ sudo kubeadm init --config ./kubeadm-config.yaml
Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!
# 查看IP段是否生效(iptable)
$ ip route show
10.244.0.0/24 dev cni0 proto kernel scope link src 10.244.0.1
10.244.1.0/24 via 10.244.1.0 dev flannel.1 onlink
10.244.2.0/24 via 10.244.2.0 dev flannel.1 onlink

# # 查看IP段是否生效(ipvs)
$ ipvsadm -L -n
IP Virtual Server version 1.2.1 (size=4096)
Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags
  -> RemoteAddress:Port           Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn
  • 配置文件定义
    • 接口使用了 v1beta2 版本
    • 配置主节点 IP 地址为 192.168.30.30
    • flannel 分配的是 10.244.0.0/16 网段
    • 选择的 kubernetes 是当前最新的 1.20.2 版本
    • 加入了 controllerManager 的水平扩容功能
# kubeadm-config.yaml
# sudo kubeadm config print init-defaults > kubeadm-config.yaml
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
imageRepository: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers
kind: ClusterConfiguration
kubernetesVersion: v1.20.2
apiServer:
  extraArgs:
    advertise-address: 192.168.30.30
networking:
  podSubnet: 10.244.0.0/16
controllerManager:
  ExtraArgs:
    horizontal-pod-autoscaler-use-rest-clients: "true"
    horizontal-pod-autoscaler-sync-period: "10s"
    node-monitor-grace-period: "10s"
  • 执行成功之后会输出如下信息,需要安装如下步骤操作下
    • 第一步kubectl 默认控制和操作集群节点的时候,需要使用到 CA 的密钥,传输过程是通过 TLS 协议保障通讯的安全性。通过下面 3 行命令拷贝密钥信息到当前用户家目录下,这样 kubectl 执行时会首先访问 .kube 目录,使用这些授权信息访问集群。
    • 第二步 之后添加 worker 节点时,要通过 token 才能保障安全性。因此,先把显示的这行命令保存下来,以备后续使用会用到。
# master setting step one
To start cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:
  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

Alternatively, if you are the root user, you can run:
  export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf

# master setting step two
You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:
kubeadm join 192.168.30.30:6443 \
  --token lebbdi.p9lzoy2a16tmr6hq \
  --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash \
  sha256:6c79fd83825d7b2b0c3bed9e10c428acf8ffcd615a1d7b258e9b500848c20cae
  • 将子节点加入主节点中
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS     ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
k8s-master   NotReady   control-plane,master   62m   v1.20.2
k8s-node1    NotReady   <none>                 82m   v1.20.2
k8s-node2    NotReady   <none>                 82m   v1.20.2
# 查看token令牌
$ sudo kubeadm token list

# 生成token令牌
$ sudo kubeadm token create

# 忘记sha编码
$ openssl x509 -pubkey -in /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt \
    | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der 2>/dev/null \
    | openssl dgst -sha256 -hex | sed 's/^.* //'
# 生成一个新的 token 令牌(比上面的方便)
$ kubeadm token generate

# 直接生成 join 命令(比上面的方便)
$ kubeadm token create <token_generate> --print-join-command --ttl=0
  • 执行完成之后可以通过如下命令,查看主节点信息
    • 默认生成四个命名空间
      • defaultkube-systemkube-publickube-node-lease
    • 部署的核心服务有以下几个(kube-system)
      • corednsetcd
      • kube-apiserverkube-scheduler
      • kube-controller-managerkube-controller-manager
    • 此时 master 并没有 ready 状态(需要安装网络插件)
      • 下一章节中,我们将安装 flannel 这个网络插件
# 命名空间
$ kubectl get namespace
NAME              STATUS   AGE
default           Active   19m
kube-node-lease   Active   19m
kube-public       Active   19m
kube-system       Active   19m

# 核心服务
$ kubectl get pod -n kube-system
NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-7f89b7bc75-bh42f             1/1     Running   0          19m
coredns-7f89b7bc75-dvzpl             1/1     Running   0          19m
etcd-k8s-master                      1/1     Running   0          19m
kube-apiserver-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          19m
kube-controller-manager-k8s-master   1/1     Running   0          19m
kube-proxy-5rlpv                     1/1     Running   0          19m
kube-scheduler-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          19m

3. 部署 flannel 网络

网络服务用于管理 K8S 集群中的服务网络

flannel 网络需要指定 IP 地址段,即上一步中通过编排文件设置的 10.244.0.0/16。其实可以通过 flannel 官方和 HELM 工具直接部署服务,但是原地址是需要搭梯子的。所以,可以将其内容保存在如下配置文件中,修改对应镜像地址。

# 部署flannel服务
# 1.修改镜像地址(如果下载不了的话)
# 2.修改Network为--pod-network-cidr的参数IP段
$ kubectl apply -f ./kube-flannel.yml

# 如果部署出现问题可通过如下命令查看日志
$ kubectl logs kube-flannel-ds-6xxs5 --namespace=kube-system
$ kubectl describe pod kube-flannel-ds-6xxs5 --namespace=kube-system

部署flannel网络

  • 如果使用当中存在问题的,可以参考 官方的问题手册
    • 因为我们这里使用的是 Vagrant 虚拟出来的机器进行 K8S 的部署,但是在运行对应 yaml 配置的时候,会报错。通过查看日志发现是因为默认绑定的是虚拟机上面的 eth0 这块网卡,而这块网卡是 Vagrant 使用的,我们应该绑定的是 eth1 才对。
    • Vagrant 通常为所有 VM 分配两个接口,第一个为所有主机分配的 IP 地址为 10.0.2.15,用于获得 NAT 的外部流量。这样会导致 flannel 部署存在问题。通过官方问题说明,我们可以使用 --iface=eth1 这个参数选择第二个网卡。
    • 对应的参数使用方式,可以参考 flannel use –iface=eth1 中的回答自行添加,而这里我直接修改了启动的配置文件,在启动服务的时候通过 args 修改了,如下所示。
$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-7f89b7bc75-bh42f             1/1     Running   0          61m
coredns-7f89b7bc75-dvzpl             1/1     Running   0          61m
etcd-k8s-master                      1/1     Running   0          62m
kube-apiserver-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          62m
kube-controller-manager-k8s-master   1/1     Running   0          62m
kube-flannel-ds-zl148                1/1     Running   0          44s
kube-flannel-ds-ll523                1/1     Running   0          44s
kube-flannel-ds-wpmhw                1/1     Running   0          44s
kube-proxy-5rlpv                     1/1     Running   0          61m
kube-scheduler-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          62m

  • 配置文件如下所示
---
apiVersion: policy/v1beta1
kind: PodSecurityPolicy
metadata:
  name: psp.flannel.unprivileged
  annotations:
    seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: docker/default
    seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: docker/default
    apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: runtime/default
    apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: runtime/default
spec:
  privileged: false
  volumes:
    - configMap
    - secret
    - emptyDir
    - hostPath
  allowedHostPaths:
    - pathPrefix: "/etc/cni/net.d"
    - pathPrefix: "/etc/kube-flannel"
    - pathPrefix: "/run/flannel"
  readOnlyRootFilesystem: false
  # Users and groups
  runAsUser:
    rule: RunAsAny
  supplementalGroups:
    rule: RunAsAny
  fsGroup:
    rule: RunAsAny
  # Privilege Escalation
  allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
  defaultAllowPrivilegeEscalation: false
  # Capabilities
  allowedCapabilities: ["NET_ADMIN", "NET_RAW"]
  defaultAddCapabilities: []
  requiredDropCapabilities: []
  # Host namespaces
  hostPID: false
  hostIPC: false
  hostNetwork: true
  hostPorts:
    - min: 0
      max: 65535
  # SELinux
  seLinux:
    # SELinux is unused in CaaSP
    rule: "RunAsAny"
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: flannel
rules:
  - apiGroups: ["extensions"]
    resources: ["podsecuritypolicies"]
    verbs: ["use"]
    resourceNames: ["psp.flannel.unprivileged"]
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - pods
    verbs:
      - get
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes
    verbs:
      - list
      - watch
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/status
    verbs:
      - patch
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: flannel
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: flannel
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: flannel
    namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: flannel
  namespace: kube-system
---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: kube-flannel-cfg
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    tier: node
    app: flannel
data:
  cni-conf.json: |
    {
      "name": "cbr0",
      "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
      "plugins": [
        {
          "type": "flannel",
          "delegate": {
            "hairpinMode": true,
            "isDefaultGateway": true
          }
        },
        {
          "type": "portmap",
          "capabilities": {
            "portMappings": true
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  net-conf.json: |
    {
      "Network": "10.244.0.0/16",
      "Backend": {
        "Type": "vxlan"
      }
    }
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  name: kube-flannel-ds
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    tier: node
    app: flannel
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: flannel
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        tier: node
        app: flannel
    spec:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
              - matchExpressions:
                  - key: kubernetes.io/os
                    operator: In
                    values:
                      - linux
      hostNetwork: true
      priorityClassName: system-node-critical
      tolerations:
        - operator: Exists
          effect: NoSchedule
      serviceAccountName: flannel
      initContainers:
        - name: install-cni
          image: quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.13.1-rc1
          command:
            - cp
          args:
            - -f
            - /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
            - /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
          volumeMounts:
            - name: cni
              mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
            - name: flannel-cfg
              mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
      containers:
        - name: kube-flannel
          image: quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.13.1-rc1
          command:
            - /opt/bin/flanneld
          args:
            - --ip-masq
            - --kube-subnet-mgr
            - --iface=eth1
          resources:
            requests:
              cpu: "100m"
              memory: "50Mi"
            limits:
              cpu: "100m"
              memory: "50Mi"
          securityContext:
            privileged: false
            capabilities:
              add: ["NET_ADMIN", "NET_RAW"]
          env:
            - name: POD_NAME
              valueFrom:
                fieldRef:
                  fieldPath: metadata.name
            - name: POD_NAMESPACE
              valueFrom:
                fieldRef:
                  fieldPath: metadata.namespace
          volumeMounts:
            - name: run
              mountPath: /run/flannel
            - name: flannel-cfg
              mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
      volumes:
        - name: run
          hostPath:
            path: /run/flannel
        - name: cni
          hostPath:
            path: /etc/cni/net.d
        - name: flannel-cfg
          configMap:
            name: kube-flannel-cfg

  • 至此集群部署成功!如果有参数错误需要修改,你也可以在 reset 后重新 init 集群。
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
k8s-master   Ready    control-plane,master   62m   v1.20.2
k8s-node1    Ready    control-plane,master   82m   v1.20.2
k8s-node2    Ready    control-plane,master   82m   v1.20.2

# 重启集群
$ sudo kubeadm reset
$ sudo kubeadm init

4. 部署 dashboard 服务

以 WEB 页面的可视化 dashboard 来监控集群的状态

这个还是会遇到需要搭梯子下载启动配置文件的问题,下面是对应的下载地址,可以下载之后上传到服务器上面在进行部署。

# 部署flannel服务
$ kubectl apply -f ./kube-dashboard.yaml

# 如果部署出现问题可通过如下命令查看日志
$ kubectl logs \
    kubernetes-dashboard-c9fb67ffc-nknpj \
    --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard
$ kubectl describe pod \
    kubernetes-dashboard-c9fb67ffc-nknpj \
    --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard
$ kubectl get svc -n kubernetes-dashboard
NAME                        TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
dashboard-metrics-scraper   ClusterIP   10.245.214.11    <none>        8000/TCP   26s
kubernetes-dashboard        ClusterIP   10.245.161.146   <none>        443/TCP    26s

需要注意的是 dashboard 默认不允许外网访问,即使通过 kubectl proxy 允许外网访问。但 dashboard 又只允许 HTTPS 访问,这样 kubeadm init 时自签名的 CA 证书是不被浏览器承认的。

我采用的方案是 Nginx 作为反向代理,使用 Lets Encrypt 提供的有效证书对外提供服务,再经由 proxy_pass 指令反向代理到 kubectl proxy 上,如下所示。此时,本地可经由 8888 访问到 dashboard 服务,再通过 Nginx 访问它。

# 代理(可以使用supervisor)
$ kubectl proxy --accept-hosts='^*$'
$ kubectl proxy --port=8888 --accept-hosts='^*$'
# 测试代理是否正常(默认监听在8001端口上)
$ curl -X GET -L http://localhost:8001

# 本地(可以使用nginx)
proxy_pass http://localhost:8001;
proxy_pass http://localhost:8888;

# 外网访问如下URL地址
https://mydomain/api/v1/namespaces/kubernetes-dashboard/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/#/login

  • 配置文件整理
    • nginx
    • supervisor
# k8s.conf

client_max_body_size     80M;
client_body_buffer_size  128k;
proxy_connect_timeout    600;
proxy_read_timeout       600;
proxy_send_timeout       600;

server {
    listen       8080 ssl;
    server_name  _;

    ssl_certificate     /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.key;

    access_log /var/log/nginx/k8s.access.log;
    error_log  /var/log/nginx/k8s.error.log  error;

    location / {
        proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
        proxy_set_header   Host              $http_host;
        proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP         $remote_addr;
        proxy_pass http://localhost:8001/api/v1/namespaces/kubernetes-dashboard/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/;
    }
}
# k8s.conf

[program:k8s-master]
command=kubectl proxy --accept-hosts='^*$'
user=vagrant
environment=KUBECONFIG="/home/vagrant/.kube/config"
stopasgroup=true
stopasgroup=true
autostart=true
autorestart=unexpected
stdout_logfile_maxbytes=1MB
stdout_logfile_backups=10
stderr_logfile_maxbytes=1MB
stderr_logfile_backups=10
stderr_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/k8s-stderr.log
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/k8s-stdout.log

  • 配置文件如下所示
# Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-csrf
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque
data:
  csrf: ""

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-settings
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---
kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Dashboard to get, update and delete Dashboard exclusive secrets.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["secrets"]
    resourceNames:
      [
        "kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder",
        "kubernetes-dashboard-certs",
        "kubernetes-dashboard-csrf",
      ]
    verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]
    # Allow Dashboard to get and update 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["configmaps"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
    verbs: ["get", "update"]
    # Allow Dashboard to get metrics.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["proxy"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services/proxy"]
    resourceNames:
      [
        "heapster",
        "http:heapster:",
        "https:heapster:",
        "dashboard-metrics-scraper",
        "http:dashboard-metrics-scraper",
      ]
    verbs: ["get"]

---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Metrics Scraper to get metrics from the Metrics server
  - apiGroups: ["metrics.k8s.io"]
    resources: ["pods", "nodes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---
kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard
          image: registry.cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com/jieee/dashboard:v2.0.4
          imagePullPolicy: Always
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8443
              protocol: TCP
          args:
            - --auto-generate-certificates
            - --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard
            # Uncomment the following line to manually specify Kubernetes API server Host
            # If not specified, Dashboard will attempt to auto discover the API server and connect
            # to it. Uncomment only if the default does not work.
            # - --apiserver-host=http://my-address:port
          volumeMounts:
            - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
              mountPath: /certs
              # Create on-disk volume to store exec logs
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTPS
              path: /
              port: 8443
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      volumes:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          secret:
            secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "kubernetes.io/os": linux
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule

---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 8000
      targetPort: 8000
  selector:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper

---
kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
      annotations:
        seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/pod: "runtime/default"
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
          image: registry.cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com/jieee/metrics-scraper:v1.0.4
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8000
              protocol: TCP
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTP
              path: /
              port: 8000
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "kubernetes.io/os": linux
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule
      volumes:
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}

  • 第一种:登录 dashboard 的方式(配置文件)
    • 采用 token 方式
    • 采用秘钥文件方式

登录dashboard的方式

# 创建管理员帐户(dashboard)
$ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: admin-user
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
EOF
# 将用户绑定已经存在的集群管理员角色
$ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: admin-user
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin-user
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
EOF
# 获取可用户于访问的token令牌
$ kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard describe secret \
    $(kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get secret \
    | grep admin-user | awk '{print $1}')
  • 登录界面展示
    • 针对 Chrome 浏览器,在空白处点击然后输入:thisisunsafe
    • 针对 Firefox 浏览器,遇到证书过期,添加例外访问

登录dashboard的方式


  • 第二种:授权 dashboard 权限(不适用配置文件)
    • 如果登录之后提示权限问题的话,可以执行如下操作
    • serviceaccount 绑定在 clusteradmin
    • 授权 serviceaccount 用户具有整个集群的访问管理权限
# 创建serviceaccount
$ kubectl create serviceaccount dashboard-admin -n kube-system

# 把serviceaccount绑定在clusteradmin
# 授权serviceaccount用户具有整个集群的访问管理权限
$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding \
    dashboard-cluster-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin \
    --serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin

# 获取serviceaccount的secret信息,可得到token令牌的信息
$ kubectl get secret -n kube-system

# 通过上边命令获取到dashboard-admin-token-slfcr信息
$ kubectl describe secret <dashboard-admin-token-slfcr> -n kube-system

# 浏览器访问登录并把token粘贴进去登录即可
https://192.168.30.30:8080/

# 快捷查看token的命令
$ kubectl describe secrets -n kube-system \
    $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | awk '/admin/{print $1}')

5. 参考链接

送人玫瑰,手有余香!


文章作者: Escape
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